With the advent of float glass technology, it is possible to make high-quality glass with even and flat quality in large quantities, and also enrich the types of deep processed glass. In addition to the commonly used high strength Tempered glass Besides, there are also frosted glass and dimming glass, which focus on privacy protection, and enhance the safety of bulletproof. Sandwich glass , glass and so on. In this article, we will mainly introduce how glass is made and explain its characteristics.
First, how is glass made?
The main raw materials for flat glass are silica sand (sandstone), soda ash, feldspar, dolomite, limestone and Glauber's salt.
1. Raw material crushing: crushing the raw materials into powder.
2, weighing: according to the plan ingredients, it is called a certain amount of powder.
3, mixing: mix the powder and mix it into a batch (coloured glass at the same time).
4, melting: the batch is sent into the glass furnace and melted into glass liquid at 1700 degrees.
5, molding: the glass liquid into tin bath (float), flat drawing machine (lattice method), Calender (calendering method, adding metal wire is laminated glass), forming into flat glass;
6, annealing: the molded glass products are sent to the annealing kiln for annealing, balancing the stress and preventing self breaking and self cracking.
Then, inspection and packaging.
Ordinary glass is flat glass, laminated glass and quartz glass (also known as crystal glass) for one time. The glass is as follows: quartz glass has only one material -- sandstone or silica sand or quartz sand.
Tempered glass It is made of flat glass as raw material for reprocessing: the cutting flat glass is sent to the tempering furnace and heated to about 650 degrees, so that the glass is quenched and tempered.
Two. Tempered glass How did it work out?
The methods of tempering glass are mainly physical toughening and chemical tempering.
Physical toughening: heating the glass to the softening temperature close to the glass, and then cooling the air on both sides by air at the same time, so as to increase the mechanical strength and thermal stability of the glass.
Chemical toughening: chemical modification of the surface components of the glass and increasing the surface lamination stress to increase the mechanical strength and thermal stability of the glass. It is also known as ion exchange enhancement because it enhances the glass through ion exchange.
Either way, glass tempering is to increase the SiO2 content of glass to improve the mechanical hardness of glass, and become toughened glass.
Three. Related concepts
Glass is amorphous inorganic non-metallic material, usually using a variety of inorganic minerals (such as quartz sand, borax, boric acid, barite, barium carbonate, limestone, feldspar, soda, etc.) as the main raw material, and add a small amount of auxiliary materials made of. Its main components are silica and other oxides. The chemical composition of common glass is Na2SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2 or Na2O. CaO. 6SiO2. The main component is silicate compound salt, which is an amorphous structure with irregular structure. Widely used in buildings, for wind and light transmittance, is a mixture. Other colored glass mixed with oxides or salts of some metals and stained with physical or chemical methods. Sometimes some transparent plastics, such as polymethyl methacrylate, are also called plexiglass.
The process of reducing the temperature of a heated object without phase change.